Nephrology focuses on the treatment of kidney conditions and abnormalities. Nephrologists diagnose causes and levels of kidney failure and prescribe appropriate treatments, such as medication, diet changes or dialysis.
Because kidney disease affects the entire body, a nephrologists is trained to understand other aspects of internal medicine and to recognize how renal failure can cause body systems to fail.
Kidney disorders may be caused by congenital defects, by disease or by lifestyle. Nephrology deals with all these disorders. The field also specializes into pediatric nephrology, which deals exclusively with kidney disease.